Load balancing an application should, by now, be a fairly routine scaling exercise. But too often when an application is moved into a load balanced architecture it breaks. The reason? Application sessions are often specific to an application server instance. The solution? Persistence, also known as sticky connections.

The use of sessions on application servers to add state to web (HTTP) applications is a common practice. In fact, it's one of the greatest "hacks" in the history of the web. It's an excellent solution to the problem of using a stateless application protocol to build applications for which state is important. But sessions are peculiar to the application server instance on which they were created, and in general are not shared across multiple instances unless you've specifically achitected the application infrastructure to do so. Inserting applications into a load balanced environment often ignores this requirement, as load balancing decisions are often made based on server and application load and not on application specific parameters.


When a client connects the first time, it's directed to Server A and a session is created. Data specific to the application that needs to be persisted over the session of the application, like shopping carts or search parameters, are stored in that session. When a client makes subsequent requests, however, the load balancer doesn't automatically understand this, and may direct the client to Server B, effectively losing the data in the session and hence breaking the application.

This affects cloud computing initiatives because an integral part of cloud computing is load balancing to provide horizontal scalability and integral part of applications is session management. Deploying an application that works properly in a test environment into the cloud may break that application because the load balancing solution utilized by the cloud computing provider isn't aware of the importance of that session to the application and, too often, the session variables are unique to the application and the provider's static network infrastructure isn't capable of adapting to those unique needs.


stickconnectionWhen choosing a cloud provider, it is imperative that the load balancing solution used by the provider support sticky connections (persistence) so that developers don’t have to rewrite or re-architect applications for cloud deployment. "Sticky connections", or persistence  in the networking vernacular, ensure that client requests are load balanced to the appropriate server on which their application session resides. This maintains the availability of the session and means applications don't "break" when deployed into the cloud or inserted into a load balanced environment.

Sticky (persistent) connections are often implemented in load balancers (application delivery controllers) by using application server session IDs to help make the decision on where requests should be sent. This results in consistent behavior and a well behaved application. The most common method of implementing sticky (persistent) connections is the use of cookie persistence. Cookie persistence inserts a cookie into the response that is later used to properly direct requests. The cookie often contains the JSESSIONID or PHPSESSIONID or ASPSESSIONID, but can actually contain any data that would allow the load balancer (application delivery controller) to identify the right application server for any given request.


If you are deploying applications into the cloud, or planning on doing so, and those applications are session sensitive, it is important that you determine before you deploy into the cloud whether or not your provider's solution supports sticky (persistent) connections, and how that persistence is implemented. Some solutions are not very flexible and will only provide persistence based on a limited array of variables and you will need to instrument your application to support the proper variables. Other solutions provide network-side scripting capabilities that will allow the provider - and you - to support persistence on any variable you deem unique enough to identify the proper application server instance.

Note that server FQDN (fully qualified domain name) or IP address will likely not be adequate in a cloud computing environment as these variables may not be guaranteed to be static. The unique variable should ostensibly be something application specific, as this is likely the only variables you will have control over in the cloud and the only variables guaranteed to be consistent across instances as they are brought on and off-line in response to changes in demand.

If you're currently examining the possibility of deploying applications in the cloud, make sure the cloud you choose is sticky to avoid the possibility that you'll need to rearchitect your application to get it to work properly.

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