There are many load balancing configurations which have no direct implementation in the OpenStack LBaaSv2 specification. It is easy to directly customize BIG-IP traffic management using profiles, policies, and iRules, but LBaaSv2 has no way to apply these to BIG-IP virtual servers. To help users get the most from their BIG-IPs, F5 Networks extended its implementation of LBaaSv2 to add an Enhanced Service Definition (ESD) feature. With ESDs, you can deploy OpenStack load balancers customized for specific applications.

How ESDs Work

An ESD is a set of tags and values that define custom settings, typically one or more profiles, policies, or iRules which are applied to a BIG-IP virtual server. ESDs are stored in JSON files on the system running an F5 OpenStack LBaaSv2 agent. When the agent starts, it reads all ESD JSON files located in /etc/neutron/services/f5/esd/, ignoring files that are not valid JSON. A JSON file can contain multiple ESDs, and each ESD contains a set of predefined tags and values. The agent validates each tag and discards invalid tags. ESDs remain fixed in agent memory until an agent is restarted.

You apply ESDs to virtual servers using LBaaSv2 L7 policy operations. When you create an LBaaSv2 L7 policy object, the agent checks if the policy name matches the name of an ESD. If it does, the agent applies the ESD to the virtual server associated with the policy. If the policy name does not match an ESD name, a standard L7 policy is created instead. Essentially, the F5 agent overloads the meaning of an L7 policy name. If an L7 policy name matches an ESD name, creating an L7 policy means “apply an ESD.” If an L7 policy name does not match an ESD name, creating an L7 policy means “create an L7 policy.”

While you can apply multiple L7 policies, doing so will overwrite virtual server settings defined by previous ESDs. Deleting an L7 policy that matches an ESD will remove all ESD settings from the virtual server, and return the virtual server to its original state.  For these reasons, it is best to define a single ESD that contains all settings you want to apply for a specific application, instead of applying multiple ESDs.

Because L7 policies were introduced in the Mitaka release of OpenStack, you can only use ESDs with a Mitaka (or greater) version of the F5 LBaaSv2 agent. You cannot use ESDs with the Liberty version of the F5 agent. Release v9.3.0 is the first version of the agent that supports ESDs.

Creating ESDs

Create ESDs by editing files to define one or more ESDs in JSON format. Each file can contain any number of ESDs, and you can create any number of ESD files. Files can have any valid file name, but must end with a “.json” extension (e.g., mobile_app.json). Copy the ESD files to the /etc/neutron/services/f5/esd/ directory. ESDs must have a unique name across all files. If you define more than one ESD using the same name, the agent will retain one of the ESDs, but which one is undefined. Finally, restart the agent whenever you add or modify ESD files.

ESD files have this general format:

{
 "<ESD name>": {
    "<tag name>": "<tag value>",
    "<tag name>": "<tag value>",
   …
 },
 …
}

An example ESD file, demo.json, is installed with the agent and provides examples you can follow:

{
  "esd_demo_1": {
    "lbaas_ctcp":"tcp-mobile-optimized",
    "lbaas_stcp":"tcp-lan-optimized",
    "lbaas_cssl_profile":"clientssl",
    "lbaas_sssl_profile":"serverssl",
    "lbaas_irule": ["_sys_https_redirect"],
    "lbaas_policy": ["demo_policy"],
    "lbaas_persist": "hash",
    "lbaas_fallback_persist": "source_addr"
  },
  "esd_demo_2": {
    "lbaas_irule": ["_sys_https_redirect", "_sys_APM_ExchangeSupport_helper"]
  }
}

ESD files must be formatted as valid JSON. If your file is not valid JSON, all ESDs in the file will be ignored. Consider using a JSON lint application (e.g., jsonlint.com) to validate your JSON files.

The following tags are supported for ESDs:

Tag

Description

Example

lbaas_ctcp

Specify a named TCP profile for clients. This tag has a single value.

 

tcp-mobile-optimized

 

lbaas_stcp

Specify a named TCP profile for servers. This tag has a single value.

 

tcp-lan-optimized

 

lbaas_cssl_profile

Specify a named client SSL profile to implement SSL/TLS offload. This can replace the use of, or override the life-cycle management of certificates and keys in LBaaSv2 SSL termination support. This tag has a single value.

clientssl

 

lbaas_sssl_profile

Specify a named server side SSL profile for re-encryption of traffic towards the pool member servers. This tag should only be present once.

serverssl

lbaas_irule (multiple)

Specify a named iRule to attach to the virtual server. This tag can have multiple values. Any iRule priority must be defined within the iRule itself.

base_sorry_page,

base_80_443_redirect

 

lbaas_policy (multiple)

Specify a named policy to attach to the virtual server. This tag can have multiple values Any policy priority must be defined within the iRule itself. All L7 content policies are applied first, then these named policies.

 

policy_asm_app1

 

lbaas_persist

Specify a named fallback persistence profile for a virtual server. This tag has a single value.

hash

 

lbaas_fallback_persist

Specify a named fallback persistence profile for a virtual server. This tag has a single value.

source_addr

 

An ESD does not need to include every tag. Only included tags will be applied to a virtual server.

During startup, the F5 LBaaSv2 agent will read all ESD JSON files (any file with .json extension) and validate the ESD by ensuring:

  1. The ESD file is a valid JSON format. Any invalid JSON file will be ignored.
  2. The tag name is valid (i.e., one of the tags listed in the table above).
  3. The tag value is correctly defined: a single string (for most tags), or a comma delimited list using JSON [] notation (only for lbaas_irule and lbaas_policy tags).
  4. The tag value (profile, policy, or iRule) exists in the Common partition. Keep these rules in mind:
    1. Any profile, policy, or iRule used in an ESD must be created in the Common partition.
    2. Any profile, policy, or iRule must be pre-configured on your BIG-IP before re-starting the F5 LBaaSv2 agent.

Any tag that does not pass the validation steps above will be ignored. An ESD that contains a mix of valid and invalid tags will still be used, but only valid tags will be applied.

Using ESDs

Follow this workflow for using ESDs.

  1. Pre-configure profiles, policies, and iRules on your BIG-IP.
  2. Create an ESD in a JSON file located in /etc/neutron/services/f5/esd/.
  3. Restart the F5 LBaaSv2 agent.
  4. Create a Neutron load balancer with a listener (and pool, members, monitor).
  5. Create a Neutron L7 policy object with a name parameter that matches your ESD name.

You apply an ESD to a virtual server using L7 policy objects in LBaaSv2. Using the Neutron CLI, you can create an L7 policy like this:

lbaas-l7policy-create --listener <name or ID> --name <ESD name> --action <action>

The action parameter is ignored, but must be included for Neutron to accept the command.

For example:

lbaas-l7policy-create --listener vip1 --name mobile_app --action REJECT

In this example, when the F5 agent receives the lbaas-l7policy-create command, it looks up the ESD name “mobile_app” in its table of ESDs. The agent applies each tag defined in the ESD named “mobile_app” to the virtual server created for the listener named “vip1”.  The REJECT action is ignored.

Use the L7 policy delete operation to remove an ESD:

lbaas-l7policy-delete <ESD name or L7 policy ID>

It is important to note that ESDs will overwrite any existing setting of a BIG-IP virtual server. For example, if you create an LBaaSv2 pool with cookie session persistence (which is applied to the virtual server fronting the pool) and then apply an ESD that uses hash persistence, cookie persistence will be replaced with hash persistence. Removing the ESD by deleting the L7 policy will restore the virtual server back to cookie persistence. Likewise, creating a pool with session persistence after applying an ESD will overwrite the ESD persist value, if defined. Order of operations is important – last one wins.

Use Cases

Following are examples of using ESDs to work around the limitations of LBaaSv2.

Customizing Client-side SSL Termination

LBaaSv2 supports client-side SSL termination by creating TLS listeners – listeners with TERMINATED_HTTPS protocol. Using TERMINATED_HTTPS in LBaaSv2 requires a certificate and key stored in the Barbican secret store service. While this satisfies many security requirements, you may want to use an SSL profile different from what is created with a Barbican certificate and key.

To use a different  profile, create a listener with an HTTPS protocol, and then create an L7 policy object using an ESD that has an lbaas_cssl_profile tag. For example:

"lbaas_cssl_profile": "clientssl"

Adding Server-side SSL Termination

LBaaSv2 has no way of specifying server-side SSL termination, as TLS listeners only define a client-side SSL profile. You may need to also re-encrypt traffic between your BIG-IP and pool member servers. To add server-side SSL termination, use an ESD that includes an lbaas_sssl_profile tag. For example:

"lbaas_sssl_profile": "serverssl"

Customizing Session Persistence

LBaaSv2 supports session persistence, though in the LBaaSv2 model persistence types are defined for pools not listeners. The F5 agent maps LBaaSv2 pool session persistence values to BIG-IP virtual servers associated with the pool. LBaaSv2 only supports three options (HTTP_COOKIE, APP_COOKIE, and SOURCE_ADDR), and these are mapped to either cookie or source_addr persistence on BIG-IPs. Many more persistence profiles are available on BIG-IPs, such as dest_addr, hash, ssl, sip, etc. To use these profiles, specify the lbaas_persist and lbaas_fallback_persist tags in an ESD. For example:

"lbaas_persist": "hash",

"lbaas_fallback_persist": "source_addr"

It is good practice to define a fallback persistence profile as well in case a client does not support the persistence profile you specify.

Adding iRules

iRules are a powerful tool for customizing traffic management. As an example, you may want to re-write certificate values into request headers. Create an iRule that does this and use the tag lbaas_irule to add the iRule to a virtual server. Unlike other tags (except lbaas_policy), the lbaas_irule tag supports multiple values. You define values for lbaas_irule using JSON list notation (comma delimited strings within brackets, []). Use brackets [] even if you only define a single iRule. Here are two examples: one ESD applies a single iRule, the other applies two iRules.

{
  "esd_demo_1": {
    "lbaas_irule": ["header_rewrite"]
  },
  "esd_demo_2": {
    "lbaas_irule": ["header_rewrite",  "remove_response_header"]
  }
}

When using iRules, be sure to define the iRule priority within the iRule itself. The order of application of iRules is not guaranteed, though the agent makes a best effort by adding iRules in the order they are defined in the tag.

Adding Policies

The Mitaka release of OpenStack LBaaSv2 introduced L7 policies to manage traffic based on L7 content. The LBaaSv2 L7 policy and rule model may work for your needs. If not, create a policy on your BIG-IP and apply that policy to your LBaaSv2 listener using the lbaas_policy tag. As with the lbaas_irule tag, the lbaas_policy tag requires brackets surrounding one or more policy names. For example:

{
  "esd_demo_1": {
    "lbaas_policy": ["custom_policy1"]
  },
  "esd_demo_2": {
    "lbaas_policy": ["custom_policy1","custom_policy2"]
  }
}

Using TCP Profiles

ESDs allow you to define TCP profiles that determine how a server processes TCP traffic. These can be used to fine tune TCP performance for specific applications. For example, if your load balancer fronts an application used for mobile clients, you can use the ‘tcp_mobile_optimized’ client profile to optimize TCP processing. Of course, that profile may not be optimal for traffic between your BIG-IP and the pool member servers, so you can specify different profiles for client-side and server-side traffic. Use the lbaas_ctcp tag for client profiles and the lbaas_stcp tag for server profiles. If you only include the client tag, lbaas_ctcp, and not the server tag, lbaas_stcp, the client profile is used for both. Following are two examples. In the first, esd_demo_1, the tcp profile will be used for both client-side and server-side traffic. In the second, esd_demo_2, the tcp_mobile_optimized profile is used for client-side traffic, and tcp_lan_optimized profile is used for server-side traffic.

{
  "esd_demo_1": {
    "lbaas_ctcp": "tcp"
  },
  "esd_demo_2": {
    "lbaas_ctcp": "tcp_mobile_optimized",
    "lbaas_stcp": "tcp_lan_optimized"
  }
}

Helpful Hints

  1. Use a JSON lint application to validate your ESD files. Forgetting a quote, including a trailing comma, or not balancing braces/brackets are common mistakes that cause JSON validation errors.
  2. Restart the F5 LBaaSv2 agent (f5-openstack-agent) after adding or modifying ESD files.
  3. Use a unique name for each ESD you define. ESD names are case sensitive.
  4. Any profile, policy, or iRule referenced in your ESD must be pre-configured on your BIG-IP, and it must be created in the Common partition.
  5. ESDs overwrite any existing settings. For example, the lbaas_cssl_profile replaces the SSL profile created for TLS listeners.
  6. When using iRules and policies, remember that any iRule priority must be defined within the iRule itself.
  7. If DEBUG logging is enabled, check the agent log, /var/log/neutron/f5-openstack-agent.log, for statements that report whether a tag is valid or invalid.